Training materials for the first NEAR-GOOS - NOWPAP Joint Training Course on Remote Sensing Data Analysis
  1. Introduction - Remote Sensing for the Northeast Asian Seas
    Dr. Hiroshi KAWAMURA, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Japan
    Day1, 2007/9/3
    The Asian coastal seas, our living area, face a variety of difficulties (i.e. marine environmental problems, coastal hazards, marine safety, etc.). Their throats enhanced by the global changes are transported crossing the national boundaries. In order to detect the throats and treat them properly, we need high-resolution information on the present status of oceans. Advanced coastal ocean observing systems have been developed for global coastal seas through supports of the international frameworks. Recent intensive efforts of the earth observing communities have realized satellite components of the global ocean observing system. They are functioning for monitoring the open oceans, but their applications for the Asian coastal seas are our challenge. Research and development of the remote sensing applications have been continuing from the past decade to the present. This lecture introduces the advanced ocean remote sensing and its roles in observations of the Asian coastal seas.
    Material (PDF)
  2. Atmospheric Correction and Bio-optical Algorithm for Ocean Color Remote Sensing
    Dr. Ichio Asanuma, Tokyo University of Information Sciences, Japan
    Day1, 2007/9/3
    The atmospheric correction will be discussed for the first part of the lecture as the pre-processing of ocean color remote sensing. The atmospheric correction includes the traditional method to the current approach using the short wave infrared. In the second part, the bio-optical algorithm is introduced to estimate chlorophyll-a concentration, diffuse attenuation coefficient and colored dissolved organic matter. Through these discussions, trainees may understand the basic of pre-processing to estimate geophysical values.
    Material 1 (PDF)
    Material 2 (PDF)
     
  3. Introduction of Satellite Data Distribution System
    Dr. Joji Ishizaka, Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, Japan
    Day1, 2007/9/3
    Some of the useful satellite data distribution system will be introduced during the lecture. Trainees can learn how to order and obtain satellite data images and products from various satellite data distribution systems such as NASA ocean color web, Marine Environmental Watch Project Homepage and JAXA MODIS Near Real time Data System. Through the lecture, trainees are expected to understand the differences among the various satellite data systems.
    Material (PDF)
  4. Operational Oceanographic Data Exchange and NEAR-GOOS Regional Real Time Data Base
    Mr. Takashi Yoshida, Japan Meteorological Agency, Japan
    Day1, 2007/9/3
    Operational oceanographic data exchange has a long history since the XBT water temperature profile data exchange through the GTS started in 1970°«s. During past 30 years, in situ ocean observing network has been steadily strengthened under international frameworks, by introducing new observation technology, such as autonomous surface drifter and profiling float, and now the network has well grown up to cover almost all the global oceans. Recent evolution of information technology has dramatically widened the use of operational oceanographic data in order to meet the increasing requirement of ocean environment monitoring. In this lecture, major operational ocean observing systems and its data exchange, together with the NEAR-GOOS Regional Real Time Data Base, which works as an interface between wide range of oceanographic data users and the operational observing system, are introduced.
    Material (PDF)
  5. Introduction of RDMDB (NEAR-GOOS) & Data Management at JODC
    Mr. Eiji Mukainaka, Japan Oceanographic Data Center, Japan Coast Guard, Japan
    Day1, 2007/9/3
    The oceanographic/marine meteorological data in the NEAR-GOOS region are maintained on two databases operated by JMA and JODC. One of the databases is the RRTDB operated by JMA, and another one is the RDMDB operated by JODC. Firstly, the RDMDB database, such as the contents, data flow and website, is introduced at this lecture. JODC was established in 1965 for fulfilling the role of the synthetic marine data bank of Japan. JODC has been carrying out correcting, processing, archiving ocean data since it was established. Secondly, activities of JODC as the role, such as quality control of oceanographic data, FETI format that is one of data formats designed by JODC, and JODC-Data Online Service System, are introduced at this lecture. Finally, an international data exchange system is introduced.
    Material (PDF)
  6. Introduction to software for satellite data analysis - with an emphasis on SeaWiFS Data Analysis System
    Mr. Genki Terauchi, Special Monitoring & Coastal Environment Assessment Regional Activity Centre, NOWPAP, UNEP
    Day1, 2007/9/3
    SeaWiFS Data Analysis System (SeaDAS), one of the most useful software for processing and analysis of ocean color data develop by NASA, will be introduced during the lecture. Trainee will learn how to visualize, annotate and obtain statistic information using basic function of SeaDAS. Some simple shell scripts for batch processing time series of ocean color data will also be introduced. Thorough the lecture trainees may become familiar with the basic functions and features of SeaDAS.
    Material (PDF)
  7. The Optic Properties and Regional Ocean Color Algorithms for the Case-II Waters in China Seas
    Dr. Junwu Tang, National Satellite Ocean Application Service, State Oceanic Administration, China
    Day2, 2007/9/4
    The commonly used Ocean Color algorithms, such as OC2 and OC4, are not suitable for the turbid coastal waters in China Seas, new algorithms must be derived. To achieve this goal, we have conducted some Case-II ocean color specific cruises. The measurement techniques were based on NASA ocean color validation protocols, with some refinement for case-II waters. With these data set, regional in-water algorithms were derived, including the statistic chlorophyll-a, sediment and CDOM retrieval algorithms as well as semi-analytic algorithms based regional IOP measurements. Also, some hints for atmosphere correction algorithm in highly turbid waters are also given in this lecture.
    Material (PDF)
  8. Validation of Ocean Color Remote Sensing Data in Korea
    Dr. Sang-Woo Kim, Nation Fisheries research & Development Institute, Korea
    Day2, 2007/9/4
    Among the satellite data provided by various space agencies, ocean color is the measure of spectral characteristics of water-leaving radiance and comparable to the visible inspection of the watercolor. In ocean color remote sensing, the algorithm for the estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in open-ocean is almost ready for practical use. However, the relationship between ocean color and coastal seawater constituents are not as simple as in the open-ocean, due to the influence of suspended sediment etc on the optical characteristics of seawater, and also due to the influence of absorbing aerosols. In order to evaluate the usefulness of remote sensing techniques as a monitoring tool for the marine environment including coastal area in Korea, NFRDI and KORDI were conducted in Korean waters including the northern East China Sea. In this lecture, I would like to introduce about the case studies for validation of ocean color data in Korea.
    Material (PDF)
  9. Satellite-based Red-Tide Detection/Monitoring
    Dr. Hiroshi KAWAMURA, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Japan
    Day2, 2007/9/4
    Because of enhanced eutrophication in the Asian coastal seas, red-tides frequently suffer human marine activities and degrade environmental conditions in the coastal zone. Since detection of the red-tide leads following actions for mitigating its influences, the red-tide in situ observation system has been developed as an operational function. Recently, it is proven that the high-resolution visible radiometers are capable of detecting the red-tide phenomena, which change color of the ocean surface drastically. Examples of the satellite-based red-tide detection/monitoring are lectured with basic features of red-tides (remote sensing aspects). Validation of the satellite-based red-tide detection has been conducted in the Seto Inland Sea using the existing red-tide monitoring system, which give us a hint for future research and development. The other satellite-based parameters (e.g., SST, solar radiation, surface winds) are considered to be useful for research and monitoring of the red tides. Challenge is to include the new satellite-based technology in the present monitoring system, which will be also discussed in the lecture.
    Material (PDF)
  10. Introduction to Eutrophication Monitoring Guidelines by Remote Sensing for the NOWPAP Region and Case Study in Toyama Bay
    Dr. Joji Ishizaka, Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, Japan
    Day3, 2007/9/5
    Eutrophication is the phenomenon of enrichment of aquatic ecosystem through increasing loads of nutrients. Coastal areas of the China, Japan and Korea are densely populated and the ability to monitor the health of theses area is required to sustain a quality environment. Although eutrophication is a rare event in Russian waters, monitoring of their quality is also required due to the increased agriculture and industry activity and variable coastal run-off. To monitor and assess eutrophication phenomenon by satellite remote sensing, guidelines for eutrophication monitoring were made by the framework of international cooperation within NOWPAP. This lecture will introduce the contents of the guidelines and a case study conducted in Toyama Bay, Japan.
    Material (PDF)
  11. Case Studies of Red Tide
    Dr. Joji Ishizaka, Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, Japan
    Day3, 2007/9/5
    Ocean color remote sensing can detect change of ocean color caused by increase or decrease of phytoplankton. Red tide is known as discoloration of water with increase of phytoplankton and often causes problems to human activities, such as fish kill for aquaculture. Here I discuss about how satellite data can be used to detect red tide in Ariake Bay, which is small-enclosed bay near Nagasaki. I further discussed time series analysis of chlorophyll concentration data from ocean color satellite and the qualitative analysis with comparison to various environments in the area.
    Material (PDF)
  12. Measurements of Ocean Optical Properties for Sea Truth
    Dr. Joji Ishizaka, Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, Japan
    Day4, 2007/9/6
    In order to understand satellite derived ocean color products, in many cases, it is necessary to measure in situ ocean optical properties. NASA published series of protocols for ocean optics (Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS/Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation), and they are good references for the measurements. Normalized water leaving radiances are most typical ocean color products, and it can be verified with in-water or above-water measurements of radiances and irradiances. Chlorophyll-a, CDOM and total suspended matter (TSM) are typically measured in situ and used for the satellite products. Methods of the measurements are outlined in this lecture.
    Material (PDF)
  13. Monitoring of Oil Pollution with the Use of Satellite Imagery
    Dr. Leonid M. Mitnik, V.I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
    Day5, 2007/9/7
    Oil pollution belongs to the most widespread man-caused emergency situations considerably harming natural ecosystems and different types of economic activity, fishing, tourism, and other. As the demand for oil based products increases, shipping routes will consequently become much busier, the likelihood of slicks occurring in the NOWPAP region is increasing. Remote sensing allows to detect and monitor oil spills, support response operations in case of maritime accidents, provide an early warning of possible threats to coastal areas in time to take counter-measures, measure the state of NOWPAP area variations and trends to inform policymaking and assess the success or otherwise of action taken. Among the different tools for monitoring oil spills are the use of remote sensing from airplanes and satellites. Monitoring of oil pollution as well as its impact on the environment are not only related to the quantity but also depend on location, season, ocean depth, meteorological and oceanic conditions. Behavior of oil at sea is shortly reviewed before detailed consideration of remote sensing techniques of oil spills with microwave radiometers, passive hyper spectral sensors, active fluorescence lasers and satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and ALOS SAR images of the NOWPAP area with the revealed oil spills as well as the dark features caused by natural slicks, wind shadows and other phenomena are discussed. Description of CEARAC-POI web site °»Oil spill monitoring by remote sensing°… (http://cearac.poi.dvo.ru/) is given.
    Material (PDF)
  14. Introduction to NGSST and SST Application for Monitoring of Ocean Environment
    Dr. Kyung-Ae Park, Seoul National University, Korea
    Day5, 2007/9/7
    Sea surface temperature (SST) is a key parameter to understand diverse physical and biogeochemical processes in the upper ocean. Its variation gives us a hint to understand air-sea interaction processes, heat fluxes, gas exchanges, and so on. Long-term variation of SST gives evidence of global warming, more accelerated recently, results in rapid climate change. Global SST warming occurs not only in the open ocean but in the regional and coastal region where we are living through multiple air-sea feedbacks. SST is one of the most important and substantial parameters to cope with global/regional warming issues and earth environmental changes. Diverse time/space resolution of satellite sensors enable us to study various scales of oceanic phenomena and provides us with time-series SST as an input of atmosphere-ocean coupled numerical prediction models. NGSST (New-generation SST) has been distributed since 2003 and well operating so far. This lecture introduces the NGSST and several applications of SST for monitoring the ocean environmental change in the Northeast Asian seas.
     Material (PDF)
  15. Hands-on Practice on WIM/WAM
    Dr. Mati Kahru, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, USA
    Day1-5, 2007/9/3-7
    A set of practical hands-on training on WIM/WAM software to learn how to visualize and analyze satellite data images will be conducted during the course. By the end of the course, trainees are expected to obtain knowledge and skill on; how to obtain, process and analyze satellite data images of chlorophyll-a concentration and SST.
    Contents:
    1. Basic exercise on WIM/WAM
      Material (PDF)
    2. Familiarizing with satellite data distribution system
      Material (PDF)
    3. Visualizing and projecting satellite data images
      Material 1 (PDF)
      Material 2 (PDF)
    4. Command line programs for time series analysis
      Material 1 (PDF)
       Material 2 (PDF)
    5. Match up analysis with sea truth measurement data
      Material (PDF)
    6. Time series analysis of NGSST data
      Material (PDF)